7 F’s of Marketing — when the old marketing mix models don’t work anymore.

Deborah Goldfarb
3 min readOct 12, 2021

You see a gorgeous girl at a party. You go up to her and say, “I’m rich. Marry me.” That’s marketing!

If only my Marketing professor in business school explained the subject in this way, things would’ve been so much simpler and easier — But no… they had to make it seem like Greek to me!

Every marketing student knows the 4-Ps developed by E. Jerome McCarthy in 1964. As a matter of fact, the 4-Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion) have been considered anathema to the marketing discipline explaining specific tools (marketing mix) we use to ensure business success. Of course marketing being marketing, 4 specific elements are not enough — so, in 1981 Bernard Booms and Mary Bitner added People, Process, and Physical Evidence to the mix creating the 7-Ps shown below:

  1. Product — a good or service — ideally, fulfilling an existing consumer need or creating a new consumer want.
  2. Price — the amount consumers pay for a product.
  3. Place — where the product is sold and being distributed
  4. Promotion — advertising, public relations, social media — whatever media/medium used to deliver the right message to the right people.
  5. People — new/prospective target audience, internal/external constituencies, staff, salespeople & local community
  6. Process — the infrastructure/method used to deliver products and services to customer in timely & efficient manner
  7. Physical evidence — everything your customers see when interacting with your business including retail stores, packaging, and branding.

It’s been decades since the marketing model was created, and many things have changed including: rise of the dotcom in the late 1990s, introduction/ proliferation of the internet, growth of social media, and global pandemic to name a few…The question now is whether the marketing mix of “old” is still relevant in today’s environment?

As a result and evolving focus on customer service — in 1990 — Robert F. Lauterborn recommended revamping the marketing mix into the 4-Cs (Customer, Cost, Convenience, and Communications). And, of course marketing being marketing quickly increased the 4-Cs to…



Deborah Goldfarb

Debbie Goldfarb is the founder of Biz Made EZ and is a well-respected marketing and branding consultant working with both small and large businesses.